RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION 38* man calls for more than an education in the three R's. The way of escape from the crushing of individuality by the political and industrial systems is not to be got simply by affording the bare minimum of education that will permit everyone to take a part in determining the conditions under which he has to live and work. It involves, over and above that, the higher education that opens up the spiritual realms of art, literature and religion in which a man is most completely free, and consequently calls for an education in the great human interests. So far this has only very partially been secured for the mass of the people ; but it is coming to be recognized more and more as one of the urgent needs of the future. At this point the democratic movement in education receives reinforcement from the older educational tradition. With all its limitations that tradition has always been essentially humanistic. It has made the study of the noblest expressions of the human spirit the main concern of the schools. It is true that the literature on which it has hitherto depended for cultural development has been almost exclusively that of the ancient world; and to that extent it has been aristocratic in character, since only a small section of the community enjoys the leisure required for mastering the Latin and Greek which open the portals to this study. But this restriction is not essential to the idea of humanism. After all that can be said as to the virtue of classical learning has been admitted, it still remains true that the central principle of the old tradition is that literature in any form and in any language is the means of intellectual salvation. Hence it is possible for those who wish the education of the people to have a spiritual basis and those who uphold the study of the classics to unite in recognizing the importance of the literature of their own people for the children of a modern nation, and so prevent education becoming a narrow training either for mere work or for mere citizenship without reference to the deeper needs of the human soul. As a matter of fact, the study of the mother tongue and of the literature written in it has found increasing favour with educators in all lands during the last half-century; and there is every reason to believe that it will play an even greater part in the education of the future. Whatever place be given to Latin and Greek or the modern languages in our educational systems, popular culture must inevitably be reared on vernacular foundations.